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  • The spring weather and sunshine motivated us to take a look at NCI data and what they show about individuals with ID/DD and physical activity. We looked at the 2011-2012 administration of the Adult Consumer Survey. No tests of statistical significance were conducted for this data brief.

    Physical activity is first assessed in the Background Information section of the Adult Consumer Survey, which is filled out by looking at agency records or information systems. Of the total sample in 2011-2012 (n=10387), 37.6% of respondents engaged in moderate physical activity for 30 minutes or more at a time.

    It’s interesting to look at the data on physical activity by residence type. As is evident from the table below, individuals in institutions participated in moderate physical activity for 30 minutes or more at a time at a lower rate than those living in other types of residences.

    Does person routinely engage in any   moderate physical activity for 30 minutes or more at a time?

     

    Residence   Type

    Institution

    Community Based Residence

    Independent home/apt

    Parent/relative’s home

    Other

     

    No

    72.5%

    56.6%

    50.2%

    53.2%

    56.9%

    Yes

    20.9%

    37.0%

    44.4%

    39.2%

    34.4%

    In Section II of the Adult Consumer Survey, which is answered by the individual receiving services or a proxy who knows the individual well, NCI asks respondents whether they have participated in specific community activities in the past month. In order to corroborate the findings demonstrated above, it is very interesting to look at the data regarding exercise in the community by residence type. Again, it is clear that individuals in institutions did not participate in exercise in the community at the same rate as those living in other types of residence.

    In the past month, do you (does this   person) go out for exercise in the community?

     

    Residence   Type

    Institution

    Community Based Residence

    Independent home/apt

    Parent/relative’s home

    Other

     

    No

    62.9%

    44.3%

    39.6%

    40.5%

    43.6%

    Yes

    37.1%

    55.7%

    60.4%

    59.5%

    56.4%

     

    Levels of disability and mobility also vary by residence type. For example, one-third (33.3%) of survey respondents living in institutions are non-ambulatory, while 57.6% of survey respondents living in institutions have profound ID.  Although these numbers may be seen as obstacles to physical activity, it is important that everyone get the opportunity to integrate activity into their lives.

    These data on physical activity are important to consider when we think about how to design policy to encourage health and wellness for individuals with ID/DD. Looking at sub-populations within the NCI sample could lead to more targeted interventions that will benefit those most in need.

    As always, we would love to hear your thoughts on these data. Please contact me at dhiersteiner@hsri.org

    Please note: The 2011-12 data reports will be released and placed on the NCI website this spring. For more in depth analysis of previous years’ NCI Adult Consumer Survey data please see http://www.nationalcoreindicators.org.

  • We recently came across the following article:

    Buckles, J., Luckasson, R.. & Keefe, E. (2013). A systematic review of the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in adults with intellectual disability, 2003-2010. Journal on Mental Health Research in Intellectual Disabilities. 6:181-207

    This article reviews existing studies on the co-occurrence of psychiatric conditions and intellectual disability in adults. The authors found that “overall prevalence rates for co-occurring psychiatric symptoms or disorders reported in these studies ranged from 13.9% to 75.2% with much of this variation due to differences in the diagnostic criteria utilized and the specific samples examined.” The authors also noted the dearth of relevant studies reporting similar prevalence data from the Americas (all of the studies in their review came from the UK, Norway, Sweden and Australia). This prompted us to take a look and see what NCI data have to say about co-occurring ID/DD and diagnosed mental illness.

    We looked at data from the 2011-2012 Adult Consumer Survey. In the Background Information Section of the survey there is a question on additional diagnoses, of which mental illness or psychiatric diagnosis is one. The Background Information Section requests data that would most likely be found in agency records or information systems, and is usually completed prior to the direct interview with the individual receiving services. None of the data in this blog post have been tested for statistical significance.

    Of the total sample of 11,621 individuals, 33.5% have a diagnosis of mental illness or psychiatric diagnosis. 

    Mental illness or psychiatric diagnosis

    Frequency

    Percent of sample

    No

    7730

    66.5%

    Yes

    3891

    33.5%

    Total

    11621

    100%

     

     

    The CDC estimates that about 25% of all U.S. adults have a mental illness.

    It is interesting to look at the psychiatric diagnosis data by level of ID. The data show that diagnosis with mental illness or a psychiatric diagnosis goes down as level of ID becomes more profound.

    Race/ethnicity

    Percent diagnosed with mental illness or a psychiatric diagnosis

    Mild ID

    41.8%

    Moderate ID

    32.7%

    Severe ID

    28.4%

    Profound ID

    20.7% 

    NCI data on psychiatric diagnoses are made more relevant when looked at in conjunction with the most recent NCI data brief, entitled “What does NCI tell us about adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities who are taking prescribed medications for anxiety, behavior challenges, mood disorders or psychotic disorders?” 

    In the brief, NCI data from the Adult Consumer Survey 2010-2011 on psychiatric diagnosis and medication use are discussed. The brief says:

    Eighty eight percent (88%) of people with a psychiatric diagnosis were taking medications for mood, anxiety or psychotic disorders. However, thirty percent (30%) of people without such diagnoses were also taking medications for at least one of these conditions. Amongst people taking medications for mood, anxiety or psychotic disorders, 41% did not have a psychiatric diagnosis.

    On Friday, March 29 from 1:30-3:00pm Eastern Time, HSRI and NASDDDS will be conducting a webinar on current NCI medications data as well as state efforts to quell high rates of medication use by the adults they serve. For more info, please see http://www.hsri.org/news-events/nci-webinar-on-medication-and-state-efforts-to-reduce-overuse/

    We look forward to discovering more about what NCI data show about psychiatric diagnoses and ID/DD. As always, please send any comments or questions to dhiersteiner@hsri.org

    Please note: The 2011-12 data reports will be released and placed on the NCI website this spring. For more in depth analysis of previous years’ NCI  Adult Consumer Survey data, please see http://www.nationalcoreindicators.org.

  • According to an article on the Reuters website, the high school graduation rate in the US is steadily increasing and is on pace to reach a 90% graduation rate by 2020. This is very exciting news, but comes with caveats. For example, the graduation rate of minority students falls far behind that of White students. One-third (33%) of African-American students and 29% of Hispanic students drop out of high school before graduation, In addition, students with limited fluency in English have a graduation rate of 25% in some states in the country.

     The article also noted that students with disabilities face significant barriers to graduation. The article stated that in Nevada, for example, only 23% of students with disabilities completed high school in 2011. This gave us the idea to look at the NCI data on completed education levels.

     The following results come from the 2011-2012 administration of the Adult Family Survey (AFS). The AFS is given to a family member of an individual with ID/DD. To be eligible for the survey, the individual with ID/DD must be living in the family home, must receive one publicly funded service in addition to case management, and must be over the age of 18. The data in this blog has not been analyzed for significance.

    The following table shows the highest education level achieved by individuals with ID/DD who had a family member respond to the AFS survey.

     

    Highest Education Level

    Percent of total N=4973

    Less than a High School Diploma/GED

    46%

    High School Diploma/GED

    49%

    Vocational School

    3%

    Some College

    1%

    College Degree

    1%


    As can be seen from this data, almost half did not graduate from high school.

    It is interesting to look at education by age of individual with ID/DD, as demonstrated in the below table:

     

    Highest Education Level

    Age Categories

    18-30

    31-50

    50+

    Less than a High School Diploma/GED

    38%

    49%

    78%

    High School Diploma/GED

    57%

    46%

    16%

    Vocational School

    2%

    5%

    3%

    Some College

    2%

    1%

    1%

    College Degree

    1%

    0%

    1%

     

    As can be seen from the above table, 57% of individuals with ID/DD between the ages of 18-30 have graduated from high school. Conversely, only 16% of individuals with ID/DD over the age of 50 have done so. This may be a testament to an increased emphasis on education and inclusion in ID/DD services.

     Interestingly, our data does not show differences in education level based on race/ethnicity.

     

    Highest Education Level

    Race/Ethnicity

    White

    African   American

    Latino

    Less than a High School Diploma/GED

    48%

    42%

    43%

    High School Diploma/GED

    47%

    52%

    50%

    Vocational School

    3%

    5%

    4%

    Some College

    2%

    1%

    2%

    College Degree

    1%

    0%

    2%

     

    As can be seen from the above table, the rate of individuals with ID/DD with High School Diplomas/GEDs does not vary much by race/ethnicity. In fact, contrary to the racial/ethnic disparities in graduation rates for non-disabled students noted in the Reuters article, White students seem to have earned their High School Diplomas/GEDs at a slightly lower rate than Latino and African American students. 

     We’d love to hear your thoughts and comments on this data.

     Please note: The 2011-12 data reports will be released and placed on the NCI website this Spring. For more in depth analysis of previous year’s NCI consumer survey data, please see http://www.nationalcoreindicators.org.